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Cytomegalovirus is a major cause of health complications in individuals with an immature or dysfunctional immune system. In spite of significant effort, how protective immunity is achieved during CMV infection is still not fully understood.

The cell-mediated immune response is involved in protecting against CMV infection; However, recent evidence indicates that the humoral response, particularly neutralizing antibodies, plays a critical role in conferring protective immunity.

Efforts for new therapeutic and preventive approaches against CMV may be directed toward developing strategies with a strong neutralizing antibody response.

Antibodies targeting CMV antigens involved in cell entry, such as gH / gL / pUL128-pUL130-pUL131A pentameric complex and gB, may be candidates for neutralizing infection.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection elicits a potent immune response that includes the stimulation of antibodies with neutralizing activity. Recent studies have focused on elucidating the role of neutralizing antibodies in protecting against CMV infection and disease and characterizing viral antigens against which neutralizing antibodies are directed.

Here, we provide a synthesis of recent data regarding the role of neutralizing antibodies in protection against CMV infection / disease. We consider the role of humoral immunity in the context of the global CMV-specific immune response, and the implications that recent findings have for vaccine and antibody-based therapy design.